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Cancer: Huge DNA analysis reveals new clues

London — UK scientists have performed a huge “archaeological excavation” of cancer in the UK to analyze the complete genetic makeup (or whole-genome sequence) of tumors from approximately 12,000 patients.

The team states that an unprecedented amount of data was able to reveal a new pattern of cancer DNA. This suggests a cause that is not yet understood.

They add that genetic clues ultimately help improve diagnosis and treatment.

The study is published in Science.

Cancer can be thought of as a destroyed version of our own healthy cells-mutations to our DNA eventually grow and divide our cells out of control. To change.

Traditionally, many cancers have been categorized by physicians based on where they are in the body and the types of cells involved, but whole-genome sequencing can provide another layer of important information.

Although whole-genome sequencing is relatively new, it is already available on the NHS for a small number of specific cancers, including some blood cancers.

The NHS Long-Term Plan aims to make it more widely available through the NHS Genomic Medicine Service.

Professor Serena Nik-Zinal, a senior researcher who is a consultant at the University of Cambridge Hospital, told the BBC that the study was like an “archaeological excavation” of people’s cancer.

She added: “Like the footprints of dinosaurs, in the field of their cancer, you can see patterns and traces of what’s wrong with their cancer.

“And everyone’s cancer is different. Knowing that we can personalize each person’s cancer report means we are one step closer to personalizing their treatment.”

A research team led by the University of Cambridge analyzed anonymized DNA data provided by the 100,000 Genome Project. This is a UK-wide project to sequence the entire genome of patients affected by cancer and rare diseases.

With thousands of genetic changes in each tumor they analyzed, researchers can detect specific combinations of genetic changes that can be key to the development of cancer, the so-called “mutation signatures.” I was able to do it.

Comparing the data with other international genetic cancer projects, they identified patterns already known and discovered 58 new patterns.

Some signatures can provide clues as to whether the patient has been exposed to environmental causes of cancer such as smoking.

Others provide more information about genetic abnormalities that may be sensitive to certain medications, researchers say.

Researchers have also created computer programs to help scientists and doctors see if patients who have undergone whole-genome sequencing have clues to newly discovered mutations.

Aubrey, a 2-year-old girl from Bedfordshire, was diagnosed with cancer when she was only 16 months old.

She did not participate in the study. However, whole-genome sequencing helped doctors identify the type of cancer she has (rhabdomyosarcoma). This is a rare cancer that generally affects the muscles attached to the bones. The results helped to ensure that she was receiving the best treatment.

Anna, Aubrey’s mother, said:

“The whole genome sequence test helped doctors know how to treat her and stabilize her.

“Although there is still a challenging journey in diagnosing and treating Aubrey, I was relieved to know that she did not have hereditary cancer, which also affects her son and other members of the family. You don’t have to worry about the possibility. “”

Professor Matt Brown, Chief Scientific Officer at Genomics England, said:

“We hope to use the mutational cues found in this study to reapply them to the patient population with the ultimate goal of improving the diagnosis and management of cancer patients. increase.”

This study is supported by Cancer Research UK. — BBC

https://saudigazette.com.sa/article/619667/Life/Health/Cancer-Huge-DNA-analysis-uncovers-new-clues?ref=rss&format=simple&link=link Cancer: Huge DNA analysis reveals new clues

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